Male pattern hair loss is the most common type of thinning of the hair and balding that occurs in adult males. It is due to a combination of hormones(androgens) and a genetic predisposition.

More than 95% of all cases of male pattern hair loss is also called androgenetic alopecia. This is where recession of the hair occurs at the temples and/or thinning of hair occurs in front/crown areas of the scalp. The final stage of such a loss leaves a band of hair around the back and sides of the scalp and baldness over the rest of the scalp. 

The thinning usually begins during the late teens and early 20s and sufferers are well on the way to baldness by the age of 30. About 50% of men suffer genetic hair loss to varying degrees by the age of 50.

Genetic hair loss is easily recognised by its location on the scalp (top and/ or front) and by the manner in which it occurs. It is not marked by rapid loss of hair. What happens is that hair follicles in a certain area begin to produce hairs of the shorter hair growth phase and, with each succeeding cycle, thinner hairs are produced until only fine vellus hairs are left. Usually, the whole process takes at least ten years and as long as forty years. A biopsy of the bald skin would shoe a fragmented stream of connective tissue sheath corresponding to successively smaller hair follicles atrophy altogether.

The development of genetic hair loss depends on the three main factors, - Genetic predisposition (it can be inherited from either parent), the presence of a normal level of post-puberty male sex hormone(androgens) and an immune reaction at the bulge on hair follicles. This immune reaction is characterised by inflammation around the hair follicle, which can be easily seen when the scalp is viewed with microscopy at about magnification of 60x.

Oily Scalp

Oily scalp is caused by overactive sebaceous glands. And hereditary due to the testosterone hormone causing the active oil gland as well. An excessive of the oiliness of the skin attracts bacterial and it leads to itching scalp.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis consists of area erythema covered by yellow oily scales. The hairline and forehead are the most common area affected but it can affect any part of the scalp as well as the face, neck, chest, back and other areas of the body, normally associated with itching.

The cause of Seborrheic dermatitis is not known but genetics play a part. The accumulation of Sebum on the skin's surface is a factor that contributes to the problem. As the yeast, "Malassezia globose" is found in abundance on the skin, and possibly plays a causative role by acting on the sebum to produce free fatty acids to irritate the skin which, in turn, lead to the inflammatory and scaling.

Aging Scalp

Due to free radical and environmental pollution, as well as the chemical treatment, it speeds up the aging process of our scalp and hair. The scalp is the fastest aging skin. It is 12 times faster than the body skin and 6 times faster than the facial skin. A lack of care of our scalp leads to loss of elasticity and showing of wrinkles on the scalp, sometimes even cause the wrinkle on the forehead and corner of the eyes.

Pityriasis Capitis/Dandruff

Fine shedding or scaling of the skin. Normal skin (stratum corneum) keratinised faster than normal 28 days. And the present of Malassezia yeast which causes the scalp to become inflamed, this causes irritation and therefore itchy skin.

Other considerations include the cosmetics used on the scalp and diet. Cosmetics such as shampoos that slightly irritate the scalp are lightly triggering scaling as a means of ridding the scalp of irritation. Regarding diet, deficiencies of essential nutrients are certainly reflected in our skin and hair. 

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